Computer based Information Systems

A computer-based information system (CBIS) is a single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information.

All these components of CBIS define the business’s technology infrastructure since it forms the foundation of organizations information systems.

1. Hardware

Computer equipment used to perform input processing and output activities.

Hardware components can also categorize based on the input, processing and output activities. Other than main computer system unit, all other hardware devices are known as peripherals.

2. Software

Software consists of computer programs that govern the operation of the computer. It can be described as the digital instruction set to a computer.

CPU needs software to control its functions as well as to process the input data. Without software computers are dead hardware. It is the component which gives the computer the power to act as an intelligent machine.

Software is normally classified into two components called application software and system software.

Example : MS Windows is a system software which control devices including the CPU. MS Word is an application software which facilitates users to use computers as word processors.

3. Databases

A database is an organized collection of data and information in an organization. Data and information are critical for problem solving and decision-making in an organization. Hence, most managers and executives consider a database to be the most valuable and important part of a computer-based information system.

We use special application software to create databases. They call as “Database Management Systems” DBMS.

Examples: Access, DBASE

4. Telecommunications, Network and Internet

Communication is described as transmission (i.e. both sending and receiving)of messages between two parties. We can use electronic medium to this activity. For example, using a telephone we can communicate with someone far away.

Telecommunications is described as the electronic transmission of signals (i.e. data, voice, messages) for communications.

Telecommunications enable organizations to connect with their branches, customers and other parties to set up advanced business environment.

Example, you can use a telephone to book a cab service

5. People

Computer based Information systems (CBIS) are designed and developed by a group of people to another set of people who will use it to do some tasks. Therefore, the role of people is very significant. We can identify four types of groups who are considered the key stakeholders of a CBIS.

End Users – people who use an information system or the information produced by a CBIS. Most end users consist of knowledge workers, a term that is used to describe a group of people who spend most of their time communicating and collaborating in teams and workgroups. They create, use and distribute information.

Example : employees in an organization, customers

Clients – who are spending money to develop a CBIS for an organization.

Example : managers of the organization

Developers – who will design and develop CBIS according to requirements of an organization.

Example : software engineers/developers in IT department or software house/company

Development Managers – those who are undertaking the contract to develop CBIS and manage the development work using developers.

Example : managers in IT dept. of an organization or managers of software house/company

6. Procedures

Development of a CBIS is not an easy thing. We need to use an engineering approach to develop such a thing. After developing a CBIS, it must be used according to some procedures to utilize it to achieve your objective.

Once you have a car, you must know how to drive it as well as basic procedures to maintain it. Information systems are like that. These procedures include the strategies, policies, methods, and rules for using a Computer-based information system.


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