Information Systems

What is an Information System

An information system (IS) is a set of interrelated elements or components that collect (input), manipulate (process) and store, and disseminate (output) data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective.

Hence Information system consists of four main components, namely input, processing, output and feedback. Their relationship is illustrated in the figure below.

This feedback mechanism is very important since it provides to improve the quality of processing as well as the input. Every system including Information system, has a goal to be achieved to fulfill the need of the organization. As a result of this mechanism, organizations can achieve their goals, such as increasing profits or improving customer service.

Main Components of an Information System


Input describes activities to produce raw materials which will enter into a system from the environment. In information systems, it includes activities of gathering and capturing raw data that should be processed.
Input to a system could take a manual or automated method. For example, a scanner at a grocery store that reads bar codes and enters the grocery item and price into a computerized cash register is a type of automated input. Generally, both automated and manual methods of input are active. When the bar code reader fails to identify the item, cashier can enter the code using the keyboard. Regardless of the input method, accurate input is critical to achieving the desired output.


In information systems, processing part involves converting or transforming input data into useful outputs by making calculations, comparisons and arranging raw data. Sometimes, processing involves storing data for future use. This is a critical part in an information system, and it can be done manually or with the assistance of a computer.


In information systems, output involves producing documents and reports using results of the processing activity. For example, pay slip of each employee prepared based on the company format, reports of total pay to the management, reports to third parties such as Labor Department (EMF contribution), Inland Revenue Department (Income tax employees). In some cases, the output of a system could become an input to another system. Often, output from one system can be used as input to control other systems or devices.

The salesperson, customer, and furniture designer can go through several design iterations to meet the customer’s needs. Special computer programs and equipment create the original design and allow the designer to rapidly revise it. Once the last design mock-up is approved the computer creates a bill of materials that goes to manufacture to produce the order.

Output can be produced in different ways using different devices such as display screens, printers etc. It can also be a manual process involving handwritten reports and documents.


In information systems, feedback is a kind of output that is used to make changes to input or processing activities. For example, errors or problems might make it necessary to correct input data or changes to the logic of the process. Feedback is also very important component for managers and decision makers.


Post a Comment

* Please Don't Spam Here. All the Comments are Reviewed by Admin.

buttons=(Accept !) days=(20)

Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. Learn More
Accept !