Classification of Advertising-II

III. Classification on The Basis of Media

On the basis, advertising may be-classified into the following four categories viz., (1) Print media advertising; (2) electronic, or, broadcast media advertising; (3) outdoor media advertising.

1. Print Media Advertising :
The print media consists of newspapers, magazines, journals, handbills, etc. No newspaper or, journal, today, can survive without advertising revenue. Print media advertising, even today, is the most popular form; and revenue derived by mass media from advertising has, therefore, been progressively increasing year after year. Print media appeals only to the sense of sight, i.e. eyes.

2. Electronic or Broadcast Media Advertising :
Electronic, or, broadcast media consists of (i) radio, (ii) television, (iii) motion pictures, (iv) video, and (v) the internet. The radio is audio in nature, appealing only to the sense of sound (ears). Radio advertising is more effective in rural areas, as compared to urban regions. Television, as an advertising medium, is more attractive and effective because it is an audio-visual medium appealing to both the senses of sight sound (eyes and ears). Different methods, such as, spot announcements, sponsored programmes, etc., are used for broadcasting advertising messages. However, broadcasting media are very expensive form of advertising. Advertising is also undertaken through movies, video, and the internet.

3. Outdoor Media :
This include posters, neon signs, transit, point of purchase (POP), etc. Outdoor advertising can be a good supporting media to other forms of advertising. It is a good form of reminder advertising, especially, the POP advertising.

4. Other Media :
This includes direct mail, handbills, calendars, diaries, cinema advertising, internet and so on. These miscellaneous media can play an important supporting role to the major media such as television, and newspapers.

IV. Classification on The Basis of Function

1. Direct Action and Indirect Action Advertising :
Direct action advertising is undertaken to obtain immediate response or action on the part of target audience. Examples include discount sales advertising, sale along with free gift offers, and mail-order coupon sales, etc. The media used is mostly newspapers, and television. Indirect action advertising is undertaken to influence the audience in respect of advertiser‟s brand. The advertiser expects the target audience to prefer his brand as compared to competitors whenever a buying decision arises in future.

2. Primary and Selective Advertising :
Primary Advertising is undertaken by trade association or by cooperative groups. It is undertaken to create generic den1 and for products and services. For example, the Coffee Board may advertise to consume more coffee. Selective Advertising is undertaken by marketers of branded products. The advertiser intends to create selective demand for his brand. Examples include Pepsi Cola, Coca Cola.

3. Product and Institutional Advertising :
Product or Service advertising is undertaken to promote the sale of products and services-branded or unbranded. Institutional advertising is undertaken to build name and goodwill of the organisation. It is also, know as corporate advertising or image advertising. It is mostly undertaken by large firms.

V. Classification on The Basis of Advertising Stages

On this basis, advertising may be classified into the following three different categories, viz., (1) advertising at pioneering stage, (2) advertising at competitive stage, and (3) advertising at retentive stage.

1. Advertising at Pioneering Stage :
Advertising at „pioneering stage‟ is undertaken to make the audience fully aware of the new brand of product and to inform, influence, and persuade them to buy, or, use it by highlighting its unique features.

2. Advertising at Competitive Stages :
Once the brand survives the introductory stage, it has, soon to face a stiff competition with other well established brands in the market. At this stage, competitive advertising is undertaken to promote sales effectively.

3. Advertising at Retentive Stage or Reminder Advertising :
When the product has captured a large share of the market„retentive advertising‟ is undertaken to maintain, or retain the stable position in the market as long as possible. Moreover, if the same product is passing through the declining stage in the market, this type of advertising is used to remind the buyers about the product hence, it is also known as „reminder advertising‟.


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