Classification of Advertising


Different authors have classified advertising in different ways. Philip Kotler has classified advertising on the following basis :

(a) Geographical Area : National, Regional or Local.
(b) Content : Product Advertising, Brand Advertising, Institutional Advertising.
(c) Type of Appeal : Factual and Emotional.
(d) Audience : Consumer, Industrial, Trade.
(e) Sponsor : Manufacturer, Middlemen, Manufacturer - middlemen, private.
(f) Intended Effort : Direct Action and Delayed Action.
(g) Level of Demand Influence : Primary Product Level, Selective Brand Level.

Classification of Advertising

Management scientists have classified advertising on different such criteria as follows :

I) Classification on The Basis of Area Coverage

On this basis advertising may be classified into the following four categories, viz., (1) local, (2) regional, (3) national, (4) international advertising.

1. Local Advertising : It is also known as „retail advertising‟. It is undertaken by local retail stores, departmental stores, co-operative stores, selling cloth, saris and other consumer goods and consumer durables. It is directed at local customers. Media, used for local advertising, are shop decorations, local newspapers, magazines, posters, pamphlets, hoarding, new signs, local cinema houses, etc.

2. Regional Advertising : It has wider coverage, as compared to local advertising. It covers a particular region, which may be one state, or, more than one state, the people of which may be having a common tongue, or, using one common product. It is undertaken by manufacture, or, regional distributor of a product. Media, used for regional advertising, include regional newspapers, magazines, radio, regional T.V., outdoor media, etc. It is considered to be an ideal form of advertising for launching and marketing a new product in a specific region.

3. National Advertising: It is generally undertaken by manufactures of branded goods, for which, advertising messages is communicated to consumers allover the country. Almost all possible mass media, including national newspapers, radio and television network, are employed for national advertising. Product services, and ideas, which have demand all over the country, are suitable for national advertising.

4. International Advertising : This type of advertising is undertaken by those companies, which operate in more than one country, known as „multi-national‟ companies. Exporters, generally advertise their products and services in foreign countries, where ready markets are available. Air India and other airlines, and multinational companies advertise their products and services allover the world. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are advertised globally, as the sales are almost all over the world. International advertising is extremely expensive, involving the services of professional advertising agencies in different countries.

II. Classification on The Basis of Audience

On this basis, advertising may be classified into the following four categories, viz., (1) consumer advertising, (2) industrial advertising, (3) trade advertising, and (4) professional advertising.

1. Consumer Advertising : This type of advertising is directed to the ultimate consumers of the consumer products, i.e., the individuals, who buy, or, use the consumer products, or services, say, for example, toilet soap, toothpaste, toothbrush, tea, textiles, etc., for themselves and for their families. All types of consumer products need continuous and extensive advertising on T.V., radio, and press.

2. Industrial Advertising : This type of advertising is used by manufacturers and distributors of industrial goods. Such as, machinery, plants, equipments, spare parts and components, and are directed at industrial users or customers. Such advertisements usually appear in trade journals, trade dictionaries, business magazines and so on. The appeal made is tactual and rational.

3. Trade Advertising : This kind of advertising is employed by manufactures and/or distributors to influence and persuade wholesalers and dealers (retailers) to stock and sell the goods of the advertiser by offering incentive schemes to them, or, by inviting dealership for their particular products(s).

4. Professional Advertising : It is directed at professional like doctors, professors, engineers and others, who are expected to recommend, prescribe, or, specify the advertised products to ultimate consumers. This is done through professional journals and representative of the advertisers.


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