Types of Advertising

Advertising is also classified according to their functions and role. Some of the important classifications of advertising are as follows :

1. Social Advertising
Social Advertising is undertaken by noncommercial organisations such as Trust, Societies, Associations etc. The main objective of Social Advertising is to work for social cause. Advertisements for collecting donations for war victims or for victims of natural calamities, sales of tickets for a show etc. are examples of Social Advertising.

2. Political Advertising
Political advertising is undertaken by political parties to motivate the general public in favour of the ideology of the party in question. Political advertising are intensively made during election times to gain favour of the voters. Such advertising promote plans and policies of the concerned party. It also try to expose weaknesses of the opposition with a view to convince the voters to vote for their party candidates. Some political advertisement are also made to assist the Government to implement its schemes for rehabilitation and national reconstruction. Mumbai Regional Congress Committee children affected by communal riots in Mumbai under the scheme of National Foundation for Communal Harmony. Advertisements issued by a political party is essentially a political advertising.

3. Advocacy Advertising
We often come acrossed advocacy advertised relating to the use of family planning methods. Conservation of scarce resources, maintaining green environment. An extreme example occurred in the 1960s, when a private citizen bought a two-page advertisement in the New York Times at a cost of $12,000 to offer his peace plan for ending the war in Vietnam. In 1974, Mobil Oil Company began advocacy advertising concerning the need for offshore oil drilling to alleviate the energy crisis that existed at the time. NBC accepted the television commercial, but ABC and CBS did not, because of the controversial nature of the topic. As a result, Mobil Oil Company took out full-page newspaper ads, which reproduced in print the visuals and text for the commercial.

This is designed to alert people to the fact that such ads are not editorials or informational pieces, but are specifically advertisements. Companies can place advocacy advertising on billboards, in print magazines and newspapers, online, and on television.
In fact, many advertising firms consider candidates who have completed advertising internships far more attractive than those who have not. If you are planning to begin your career in advertising in the creative department of an advertising firm, a bachelor's degree may not be as essential.

4. Retail Advertising
Retail advertising is the advertising by retailers who usually sell goods direct to the customers. Retail
advertising has such objectives as : (i) to sell the stock; (ii) to establish the identify of business; (iii) to attract personal, telephone or mail order shoppers. Retail advertising is done through window display, neon signs, posters, leaflets etc. It is usually local in character. The various advertising approaches of Akbarallys, Amarsons, Asiatic Departmental Stores are the examples of retail advertising.

5. Public Relations Advertising 
It is a part of institutional advertising. The basic objective of public relations advertising is to establish co-ordial and healthy relations with the customers, bankers, suppliers, Government. Patrons and the general public. Through public relations advertising company announces the changes in its policies, its developmental activities its position and stand when the employees are on strike. It helps the company to remove misconcepts about the company created by interested groups.

During the periods of short supply of goods the public relations advertising helps to hold the interest of the customers. The company assures about the normalcy of supply and request its customers to bear with the company. Institutional advertising and public relations advertising are complimentary to each other. Both are directed in building up corporate image.

6. Institutional Advertising
The object of institutional advertising is to build manufacturers reputation in the minds of the public in general.
The advertising message is directed to tell about the Company, its people, its contribution in promoting social welfare activities, in promoting consumer satisfaction its achievements in technology its broad philosophies, its share in economic progress of the Company etc.

Such advertisement do not bring benefits in the form of higher sales immediately. But they create good footing for the company in the long run. The competitive strength of the company goes up with
the enhancement of corporate image. It is much easier for a highly reputed company to launch a new product in the market. Basically the institutional advertising aims at getting public support for raising the capital through public subscription.

7. Internet Advertising 
The Internet facility has been around for some 30 years. It actually began in the early 19608 in USA, where the U. S. Department of Defense saw it as a means of supercomputer communication for researchers and military facilities across the country. Until its commercial explosion in 1990s, the Internet remained a relatively obscure network of linked computers - mostly by academics, military researchers, and scientists around the world to send and receive electronic mail, transfer files, and find or retrieve information from databases – At present, Internet the fastest growing medium in history, offers incredible opportunities for a wide range of people in both business and advertising. For advertisers, there is a whole new world of potential customers.

8. Primary Demand Advertising
The main objective of Primary demand advertising is to create demand for a new product or product category. This is necessary in the case of a newly developed products or the products which are costly in nature. For example, cars, refrigerators, washing machines, watches, etc. Such advertising is directed towards a class of customers, it is also described as selective demand advertising. It is heavily utilized during the introduction stage of product life cycle. Primary demand is when a potential buyer, or prospect, is showing interest in a product or service for the first time. Often times it is because the prospect was never exposed to the “concept” of the product or service or never really understood it. But now due to new circumstances she has an apparent need all of a sudden.

9. Selective Demand Advertising
Selective demand advertising is done to meet the growing competition mainly in growth stage of the life cycle of the product. Here, the goal of advertising is to push the demand of specific product or service. Often, promotion becomes less informative and more emotional during this phase.
Advertising may begin to stress subtle differences in brands with emphasis on brand name recall. At this stage, pricing may also be used as a weapon because products of all the competitors are almost similar in quality.
Selective demand is when a prospect has a need, has identified the need, and is ACTIVELY seeking out a solution. In these cases the prospect will come to you if he feels comfortable in your company's ability to solve his needs. When someone has selective demand they are more proactive in their search for information. They usually give themselves enough time to compare the quality, value, and offers of different companies. So while they are calling you they are also likely calling others as well.

10. Product Advertising
Product Advertising refer to the advertising of tangible product. It is for the marketing of the product advertising as a powerful instrument has emerged. A product may be anything in which a trader deals or trade. A product may be tangible of intangible. Products like radio, soap, pen cloth etc. are tangible products and services of professional people like doctors, lawyers, engineers etc. are intangible products.
The fundamental of any advertising campaign is to establish the fact that among the substitutes the product advertised is the best. Thus product is the heart of any advertising programme. Advertising makes possible for the smooth entry of the new product in to the market.

11. Service Advertising
Service advertising is designed to operate in the public interest. It is undertaken to seek public welfare and social development. It is in the nature of non-commercial institutional advertising. In this type of advertising, the objective is to put across a message intended to change attitudes or behaviour and, as a result, benefit the public at large. It is generally used by government and other organisations to promote public welfare. We often come across advertisements focusing on the need of small family norms, functional literacy and environmental sanitation and so on. The Government of India and many industrial houses have been sponsoring adverting campaigns pertaining to family planning programmes, national integration, employment assistance schemes, cleanliness campaigns, need for vaccinations, anti-dowry cause, drug addiction, AIDS, wildlife preservation, road safety measures, adult literacy programmes, etc. Today, most of the manufactures and businessmen have also started issuing advertisements in the interest of the public. Advertisements released by the Indian Railway appealing to the public to take care of public properties and ads released by Cancer Society of India for free Cancer check-up, are for socially relevant causes. Many companies have also taken up public causes such as supporting a leprosy eradication programme, avoiding pollution, safe driving, blood donation drive etc., by resorting to public service advertising. To create awareness of AIDS and its preventions Lintas has designed TV/film/video campaign.

12. National Advertising
It is generally undertaken by manufactures of branded goods, for which, advertising messages is communicated to consumers allover the country. Almost all possible mass media, including national newspapers, radio and television network, are employed for national advertising. Product services, and ideas, which have demand all over the country, are suitable for national advertising. In India, Indian Airline Hindustan Lever Ltd., Vicco, Godrej, Bajaj and Kirloskar are a few leading advertisers at national level. Likewise, detergents, soaps, toothpastes, cosmetics, scooters, cars, and bicycles, are some of the products, which are advertised all over the country.


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