Internet Protocols

Internet Protocols are the rules and regulations to enables data communication within networks. Simply defined as an agreement for communication. Using those rules and regulations we can make standardize communication among computers within a network.

Data traversing the Internet is divided into smaller pieces, called packets. IP information is attached to each packet, and this information helps routers to send packets to the right place. Every device or domain that connects to the Internet is assigned an IP address, and as packets are directed to the IP address attached to them, data arrives where it is needed. Once the packets arrive at their destination, they are handled differently depending on which transport protocol is used in combination with IP.

The most common transport protocols are TCP IP and UDP. Some other protocols are used on the Internet, including Electronic Mail (e-mail), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), HTTP (World Wide Web), Telnet etc.

Protocols' are developed by industry wide organizations. All data of protocols are stored in binary information. Protocol language is a mixture of bits, characters, integers, etc.


Transmission control protocol is used for communication over a network. In TCP data is broken down into small packets and then sent to the destination. However, IP is making sure packets are transmitted to the right address.

Internet Protocol (IP)

IP is also working with TCP. It is an addressing Protocol. IP addresses packets route them and show different nodes and network Unless it reaches its right destination. The IP protocol is developed in 1970.


File transfer protocol is basically used for transferring files to different networks. There may be a mass of files such as text files, multimedia files, etc. This way of file transfer is quicker than other methods.


Simple mail transfer protocol manages the transmission and outgoing mail over the internet.


HTTP is based on client and server model. HTTP is used for making a connection between the web client and web server. HTTP shows information in web pages.


Ethernet is a most important for LAN communication. Ethernet transmits the data in digital packets. If any computer wants to use this protocol they should contain Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC). The card is implemented with unique address code fixed in the microchip.


Telnet is an established with some rules which are used to connect to another computer. Telnet is mainly used for the remote login process. The computer which is requesting for a connection that is a local computer and which is accepting the connection that is a remote computer. If you give a command in a local computer that command is executed in the remote computer. Telnet is also based on client and server model.


Gopher is an application layer protocol, which is used for searching and retrieving documents from remote sites. This is possible to start an online connection with other computers through gopher.


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