Standardization in Product Development


This means fixation of some appropriate size, shape, Quality, manufacturing process, weight and other characteristics as standard to manufacture a product of desired variety and utility e.g. manufacture of television sets of standard size of the screen using standard components and technology; shaving blades are made of standard size and shape to suite every kind of razor. The concept of standardization is applicable to all factors of production namely men, materials, machines and finished goods. These standards can become the basis to evaluate the performance of various components of production in a manufacturing process. In the words of Behel, Smith and Stackman:

“A standard is essentially a criterion of measurement, quality, performance, practice established by custom, consent or authority and used as a basis for comparison over a period of time. The setting of standards and the coordination of the industrial factors to comply with these standards and to maintain them during the periods for which they are effective is known as industrial standardization”

According to Dexter S Kimball of production control operation in the manufacturing sense is the reduction of any one line to fixed types, sizes and characteristics.” Standardization becomes the basis of production control operations and works as a catalyst in directing and operating the working of business enterprise. It identifies and compares various products, systems and performances in an enterprise. It is the function of the department responsible for designing the product to provide the guidelines and infrastructure for standardization of the whole system keeping into consideration the designing stage towards standardization may be too expensive to be rectified.

For an organization designing of the product without considering standardization aspect is of no value of significance. Franklin F. Folts has described the concept of standardization as,” simplification of product lines and concentration on a restricted predetermined variety of output is one common application of the principles of standardization may be extended to all factors in the production process”. Standardization is an instrument to manufacture maximum variety of products out of minimum variety of components by means of a minimum variety of machines and tools. This decreases working capital requirements and reduction in manufacturing costs.

Standardization also implies that non-standard items are not to be manufactured except when consumers order them specially. Some standards are enacted by law viz. automobile windscreen which must be made of safety glass. Usually there are institutions, societies and governmental departments that regulate the standards. In a factory, it is best to have standardization committee drawing its members from sales, engineering, production purchasing, quality control and inspection. Sales department and engineering department have to work closely in effecting changes towards standardization because the older products that have been sold are affected for after-sales service needs. Within an organization, it is the engineering department who sets standards for the materials to be procured and specification of the end products and the mode of testing the products.

Advantages of standardization:

• Standardization in designing, purchasing of raw material, semi finished and finished goods and of the manufacturing process tries to eliminate wastage and reduces the cost of production. Reduction in varieties of raw materials means reduced investments in stocks and less attention to stock control.
• Standardize product components reduce tool cost, permits larger and more economical lot sizes of production, avoids losses for obsolescence and reduces capital requirements for work in process.
• Production in larger quantities can be planned which results in less set-up costs.
• By minimizing the operations in production process it provides facility to introduce mechanization and use of more specialized tools and equipments.
• Service and maintenance costs as well as marketing expenses are reduced.
• Encourages the manufacturer to products of new style, use and performance with an object to generate more customers.
• The value of the standardized product lying in stocks or in stocks or in transit can be easily for the purpose of advancing loans.

Disadvantages of Standardization

Product standardization leads to some disadvantages also. These are:

• Too much standardization has an adverse affect on the efficiency and morale of the workers. They in the long run feel bored and fed-up in doing the same routine again. The sprit of challenge and initiative vanishes with passage of time.
• During the initial process of product Development where frequent improvements and changes may be necessary to bring the product and production process up to the mark, standardization may create obstacles in innovations.
• For small scale enterprises standardization may not be advantageous.


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