Classification of Programming Languages

Procedure-oriented programming

Traditional programming languages were procedural. Programming in procedural languages involves choosing data structures (appropriate ways to store data), designing algorithms, and translating algorithm into code.

In procedural programming, data and operations on the data are separated. This methodology requires sending data to procedure/functions.

Example : COBOL, FORTRAN, Pascal and C

Object oriented programming

Object-oriented programming is centered on creating objects rather than procedures / functions. Objects are a melding of data and procedures that manipulate that data.Data in an object are known as attributes.Procedures/functions in an object are known as methods.

Object-oriented programming combines data and behavior (or method). This is called encapsulation. Data hiding is the ability of an object to hide data from other objects in the program. Only an object’s methods should be able to directly manipulate its attributes. Other objects are allowed to manipulate an object’s attributes via the object’s methods. This indirect access is known as a programming interface.

Benefits of Object-oriented programming -

• Save development time (and cost) by reusing code – once an object class is created it can be used in other applications.

• Easier debugging – classes can be tested independently & reused objects have already been tested.

Example : Objective C, C++, Java, and PHP


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