Big Data Management Technologies

Hadoop, an open source distributed processing framework released in 2006, initially was at the center of most big data architectures. The development of Spark and other processing engines pushed MapReduce, the engine built into Hadoop, more to the side. The result is an ecosystem of big data technologies that can be used for different applications but often are deployed together.

Big data platforms and managed services offered by IT vendors combine many of those technologies in a single package, primarily for use in the cloud. Currently, that includes these offerings, listed alphabetically:

  • Amazon EMR (formerly Elastic MapReduce)
  • Cloudera Data Platform
  • Google Cloud Dataproc
  • HPE Ezmeral Data Fabric (formerly MapR Data Platform)
  • Microsoft Azure HDInsight

For organizations that want to deploy big data systems themselves, either on premises or in the cloud, the technologies that are available to them in addition to Hadoop and Spark include the following categories of tools:

  • Storage repositories, such as the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) and cloud object storage services that include Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), Google Cloud Storage and Azure Blob Storage;

  • cluster management frameworks, like Kubernetes, Mesos and YARN, Hadoop's built-in resource manager and job scheduler, which stands for Yet Another Resource Negotiator but is commonly known by the acronym alone;

  • stream processing engines, such as Flink, Hudi, Kafka, Samza, Storm and the Spark Streaming and Structured Streaming modules built into Spark;

  • NoSQL databases that include Cassandra, Couchbase, CouchDB, HBase, MarkLogic Data Hub, MongoDB, Neo4j, Redis and various other technologies;

  • data lake and data warehouse platforms, among them Amazon Redshift, Delta Lake, Google BigQuery, Kylin and Snowflake

  • SQL query engines, like Drill, Hive, Impala, Presto and Trino.

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